The effectiveness of treating wastes prior to their release into the environment determines the balance between potential and actual pollution. The release of large quantities of oxygen-demanding organic waste into watercourses often has disastrous effects on the indigenous flora and fauna. The primary source of organic waste released into fresh waters is sewage effluent.
Other sources include run-off from urban areas and farms, and some industrial effluents. The recent intensification of livestock production, with larger herds concentrated in smaller areas, has exacerbated the problem of organic pollution from farm animal wastes.
Aquatic primary productivity is often limited by the availability of inorganic plant nutrients. In freshwater lakes and rivers, the limiting nutrient element is usually phosphorus, whilst in marine waters nitrogen is often in short supply. If small amounts of nutrients enter aquatic ecosystems where they are normally limiting, primary productivity is stimulated. The water body becomes over-enriched by excessive nutrient input and consequently polluted. Both acid rain and acid mine drainage contribute significantly to the acidification of natural waters.
These two phenomena are dealt with in detail in this section. However, there are other causes of this particular type of water pollution. For example, the planting of extensive tracts of coniferous forests, usually in upland areas, results in the acidification of the soil and the waters which drain these plantations.
Organochlorines are, as name suggests, organic compounds containing chlorine. Manufactured organochlorines include a number of pesticides, for example DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs as they are known.
These two groups will be considered separately, although they do share a number of important characteristics. For example, both groups are reported to have endocrine-disrupting properties. In , the first organochlorine pesticide, DDT dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane was manufactured for the Allied Forces to be used during the Second World War.
It met with unprecedented success against a number of insect-borne diseases, for example malaria in the tropics and typhus in Italy. It had many advantages; it was cheap to manufacture, persistent in the environment and could be applied from the air. The success of DDT resulted in the development and manufacture of other organochlorine pesticides, for example lindane and dieldrin. Drilling for oils is one of the major extractive industries.
Crude oil is a complex mixture of thousands of different organic molecules, mainly hydrocarbons aromatics, alkenes and cyclohexanes. It is refined by the process of fractional distillation to yield a number of commercially important products such as petrol, diesel oil and tar.
From these different types of oil, seas and rivers are being polluted regularly. Sometime accidental spillage from oil tankers causes drastic damage to the environment through oil pollution.
All types of aquatic forms of life thus face the ill-effects. Water is able to absorb large quantities of heat without appreciably increasing its own temperature or changing from its liquid sate. This high heat capacity means that it is extensively used as a coolant in many industries.
The principal user of water as a coolant is the electricity generating industry. All living things contain it, live in it, and most need it to survive, so water pollution is a big problem, if not the biggest. If severe, the pollution can kill off birds, fish, and any animals that use the water source.
In some cases even killing an entire species. The major water pollutants are chemical, biological, or physical materials that degrade water quality. Pollutants can be classed in to eight categories, each of which presents its own set of hazards.
Petroleum products are one of the most toxic substances to the ecosystem. Oil and chemicals derived from oil get into the water mainly by means of accidental spills from ships, tanker trucks, pipelines, and leaky underground storage tanks.
Many petroleum products are poisonous if ingested by animals, and spilled oil damages the feathers of birds or the fur of animals, often causing death.
Pesticides and herbicides are toxins that are used to kill of unwanted animals and plants. These may be collected by rainwater runoff and carried into steams, rivers, lakes, and even into the ocean.
Pollution itself is when a substance or energy is introduced into the soil, air, or water in a concentrate. Pollution comes in many forms; agricultural, urban runoff, industrial, sedimentary, animal wastes, and leeching from landfills/septic systems just to name a few.
Essay on Water Pollution Water covers two-thirds of the Earth’s surface, with over 97% present in the oceans and less than 1% in freshwater streams and lakes. Water is also present in the atmosphere in solid form in the polar icecaps and as groundwater in aquifers (water-bearing rocks) deep underground.
Water Pollution Essay 1 ( words) Water pollution has become a continuous increasing problem on the earth which is affecting the human and animal lives in all aspects. Water pollution is the contamination of drinking water by the poisonous pollutants generated by the human activities. Water pollution is one of the world's worst forms of pollution. For example, take a look at a glass of water. It may appear clear, but there are really millions of microscopic pollutants floating in it. Approximately 70% of the earth's surface are covered by water; water is a very dynamic system 3/5(10).
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Important Things You Should Include in Your Water Pollution Essay Writing an essay about water pollution is a cinch, especially if you’ve been reading a lot about the subject. Water pollution is a usual topic in high school and college essays, primarily because it is timely and relevant.