But the nucleus is now considered to be made up of protons and neutrons; the proton has a charge equal and opposite to that of the electron, but the neutron has the mass equal to that of a proton but no charge.
The simplest atom, hydrogen, has one electron. The nucleus of hydrogen consists of one proton. But it it is equally possible to have an atom with one electron, and having in its nucleus one proton balancing the charge on the electron and one neutron. Such an atom does in fact exist; it is that of deuterium, and obviously it will weigh more than an atom of hydrogen. Larger atoms of any other element can similarly have the same number of electrons and therefore protons but differing numbers of neutrons and therefore protons but differing number of neutrons in their nuclei, and therefore differing atomic weights.
These are called isotopes of the element; hence deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen. This explains why atomic weights are not whole numbers; they are made up of a number of different atomic weights, i.
The number of electrons in the atom of a particular element is, however, constant; this is the atomic number of the element and it is also the number of protons in the nucleus. When the elements are arranged in order of atomic number, the anomalies in the atomic weight periodic classification disappear; hence the modern periodic classification is based upon the atomic number and upon the arrangement of the electrons in the various shells, since it is these extranuclear electrons which determine the chemical behaviour of an atom.
The next element, of atomic number 3, lithium, has the third electron in the next shell L, and this shell fills up as we cross Period 2 of the Periodic Table, until at neon it is full with eight electrons.
The electrons cannot able to split into the further particles. The electrons move freely in the diagram of an atom. The electron forms the electron clouds. The charge of the neutron present in the atom is having neutral charge. The neutrons present in the atom are used to represent the isotope of the element. Metals are large structures of atoms, in which these atoms are bonded to each other by strong metallic bonds. In this atomic structure one metal is surrounded by the different number of atoms, the number of atom surrounded by particular atom is called as coordination number.
Metal has 12, 8, 6 co-ordination number. All the properties of metals are depends on the metal atomic structure. The different properties of metals are given as follows: The boiling and melting points of metals are very high. This is because of the strength of the metallic bond. The strength of metallic bond is different for different metals. It also depends on the number of electrons which each atom delocalizes into the ocean of electrons.
It means that melting and boiling points depends on metal atomic structure. The atomic structure of metals is responsible for this property, electrical conductivity. In three-dimensional space, the delocalized electrons of the metal are free to move and even they can cross boundaries.
Liquid metals are also good conductor of electricity. Therefore, electrical conductivity of metal depends on metal atomic structure. This decides up to how much power any metal conduct electricity. The atomic structure of metals also gives the information that metals are very good conductors of heat.
The electrons pick up the heat energy as the additional kinetic energy and hence, the electrons move faster. Thus, the heat energy is to the whole metal by the movement of these electrons. Metals are termed as malleable, i. Atomic structure of metal can explain this property. Atoms in the metals can roll over one other into new positions with no breaking of any metallic bond.
In , Neils Bohr proposed a model of an atom based on the Planck's quantum theory of radiation. The basic postulates of Bohr's theory are:. Bohr's atomic model explained successfully: The stability of an atom. Bohr postulated that as long an electron remains in a particular orbit it does not emit radiation i. Hence it does not become unstable. The atomic spectrum of hydrogen was explained due to the concept of definite energy levels.
It can absorb a definite amount of energy and jump to a higher energy state. This excited state being unstable, the electron comes back to a lower energy level. When the energy emitted during transition, strikes a photographic plate, it gives its impression in the form of a line. For example, if the electron jumps down from the third to the first energy level having energies E 3 and E 1 respectively, then the wavelength of the spectral line would be.
Similarly, when the electron jumps down from the fourth to the first energy level having energies E 4 and E 1 respectively or from the fifth to the second i. These will give different lines in the spectrum of the atom corresponding to different transitions having definite wavelengths. Different lines depending upon the difference in energies of the levels concerned can be summarized in the form of series named after the scientists who have discovered them.
The energy expression for hydrogen like ions such as He, Li can be written as:. Although Bohr's model successfully explained the stability and the line spectrum of hydrogen, it had its limitations. If the energy difference between the electronic states of hydrogen atom is The frequency n of emitted light is related to the energy difference of two levels D E as. Calculate the wavelength of the second spectral line in Balmer series. In , de Broglie's suggested that all material objects including an electron have a dual character; they behave as particles as well as waves.
The wavelength associated with a particle of mass 'm', moving with velocity 'v' is given by de Broglie's relation as:. The discovery of the wave like character of the electron helped in the making of the modern electron microscope. Heisenberg, in pointed out that it is not possible to measure simultaneously both the momentum or velocity and the position of a microscopic particle with absolute accuracy. Mathematically this may be expressed. Uncertainity is not due to the lack of refined techniques available, but because we cannot observe microscopic bodies without disturbing them.
This does not hold good for large objects of daily light, as the changes that occur are negligible. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is impossible to describe the exact position of an electron at a given moment in terms of position, we can speak of most probable regions where the probability of finding an electron in the space around the nucleus of an atom is high.
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