Recently in an article on NY Times, the US and Russia agreed on a nuclear disarmament treaty that shows progress in eliminating nuclear weapons by dismantling the two biggest stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the modern world. This, I believe, is just the beginning of the end for nuclear weapons around the world which would keep humanity much safer and hopefully create long lasting peace.
Home Papers Nuclear Weapons: This is just a sample. To get a unique essay Hire Writer. A limited time offer! Get custom essay sample written according to your requirements Urgent 3h delivery guaranteed Order Now. How to Write a Critical Analysis. How to Write a Thematic Essay. Nuclear weapons derive their power from the energy released when a heavy nucleus is divided, called fission or when light nuclei are forced together, called fusion. In fission, a nucleus from a heavy element is bombarded with neutrons.
The nucleus breaks into two pieces, releasing energy and two or more neutrons. Each of these neutrons has enough energy to split another heavy nucleus, allowing the process to repeat itself. This is the chain reaction that makes nuclear weapons possible. In a fusion nuclear device such as a hydrogen bomb, lightweight nuclei are forced to fuse at very high temperatures into heavier nuclei, releasing energy and a neutron. In order to squeeze the two nuclei together, an atomic fission bomb is usually used.
A fusion reaction releases about four times more energy per unit mass than a fission reaction. The first nuclear chain reaction occurred in December , at the University of Chicago. Soon after the first bomb test, atomic bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in The first hydrogen bomb was developed by a team of United States scientists and was first tested on November 1, After World War II, a new age of military strategy occurred. The United States built up massive nuclear weapons arsenals and developed highly sophisticated systems of delivery and defense.
Billions of dollars are wasted in taxes, each year, to pay for nuclear weapons. The United States has spent about four trillion dollars for its nuclear arsenal since government supported work began on the atomic bomb in Schwartz 1. Standard support is in helping academics and staff, students and partners negotiate copyrights and release under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Australia 3.
Advice on this license, as well as optional restrictions beyond this default position, is available from the intellectual property officer and the intellectual property officers' support agents in the institution of research and education. If the intellectual property officer is advised or believes that the confidentiality of certain information must be maintained in order for intellectual property to be protected or successfully exploited, the intellectual property officer must: The institution of research and education adopts a default copyright license of Creative Commons Attribution Australia 3.
Attribution of authorship or ownership of work goes to the original author, owner or custodian. It is important that the institution, academics and staff, students and partners ensure that work they are publishing respects the rights of any third party content being used.
Permissions to publish or distribute such work must have obtained written permission and ensured that the expressed conditions of the third party have been met Jump to Institution of research and education ownership - of research and education makes no general claim of ownership to the intellectual property of.
Training in this procedure is available upon request. Open source development edit The institution of research and education encourages open source education, research and development. Where the institution of research and education tenders for, or commissions the work, it will preference open source options.
Advice and assistance in open source development is available through the intellectual property officer. The institution of research and education shall observe the Moral Rights of its academics and staff members in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act Commonwealth of Australia.
The institution of research and education uses the Creative Commons Attribution Australia 3. The institution of research and education prefers the use of third party work that carries a copyright license that is consistent with the default position of the institution.
The institution of research and education pays annual royalties for academics and staff, students and partners who copy and distribute third party works that carry more restrictive copyright licenses. As a result, the intellectual property officer needs to keep a record of the use of such third party material. This is both to ensure the rights of the third party are respected, and to ensure accurate royalty payments are made to the third party's agent.
The intellectual property officer should strive to maximise the extent to which existing intellectual property be relicensed Creative Commons Attribution, taking account of any undue administrative burden this may cause. Negotiation with the third parties will be required to ensure release under Creative Commons Attribution for intellectual property which is not owned by the institution of research and education, or is shared with a third party.
New contracts or agreements with a third party should endeavour to include a clause clearly stating the institution of research and education's obligation to publish relevant data and that this be under a Creative Commons Attribution licence Jump to What does IP have to do with my research?
In the case of structured data, the institution of research and education and involved parties must exhaust options to protect privacy and confidentiality before seeking an exemptionIndividuals and involved parties must proactively identify and release, without request, such data that might reasonably be considered as holding value to parties outside the institution of research and education.
Intellectual property, research degree students at the university of Each year the intellectual property officer, in consultation with related officers, should develop and agree a common methodology to inform the public on the social and economic value generated from published intellectual property.
The institution of research and education should use the common methodology to report its performance in the release of intellectual property in its annual reports, commencing from the first anniversary of the establishment of this policy. The intellectual property officer should annually publish a report outlining the contribution of the institution of research and education to the consolidated value of public knowledge, commencing from the first anniversary of the establishment of this policy.
The report should be published online and be accessible for comment and discussion. The institution of research and education can assist academics and staff, students or partners in researching and registering a patent through the intellectual property officer. At the discretion of the intellectual property officer, this service can sometimes involve contractual negotiations, where the institution of research and education may wish to take an interest in the intellectual property being patented, or charge a fee for service.
In such cases, the intellectual property officer would be involved on the institution's behalf in: At the discretion of the intellectual property officer, this service can sometimes involve contractual negotiations, where the institution of research and education may wish to take an interest in the intellectual property being registered, or charge a fee for service.
The institution of research and education can assist academics and staff, students or partners to commercialise their intellectual property through the intellectual property officer.
At the discretion of the intellectual property officer, this service can sometimes involve contractual negotiations, where the institution of research and education may wish to take a commercial interest in the intellectual property, or charge a fee for service.
Where the institution of research and education negotiates a contracted interest in the commercial exploitation of intellectual property created by academics and staff, students or partners, the institution of research and education will seek to protect the rights of the originator by: All commercialisation efforts must take place in the full knowledge of the legal and contracted owners of the intellectual property.
After deducting costs of protecting, marketing and administering the intellectual property, net revenues received by the University will be distributed according to Table A below except where originator s choose to negotiate a different arrangement with the University. All decisions taken by the intellectual property officer Officer in respect of this section will be reported to the University Council. Where the University derives any financial return from the commercial exploitation of intellectual property, it must be distributed according to the provisions set out below.
Where more than one originator is involved, they must decide how the originator's share of annual net revenue is to be divided between them and inform the intellectual property officer of their decision.
An agreement reached by the University with a third party might include assigning the rights to the intellectual property to the third party in return for an up-front payment or for the payment of royalties or for both. Protecting and defending intellectual property edit The institution of research and education protects and defends its intellectual property through the Intellectual Property Officer Intellectual Property IP is the result of an individual's intellectual endeavours, most commonly in the forms of literary or artistic works, inventions,.
The intellectual property officer can assist academics and staff, students or partners in protecting and defending their intellectual property. At the discretion of the intellectual property officer, this service can sometimes involve contractual negotiations, where the institution of research and education may wish charge a fee for service. Dispute resolution edit Should a dispute arise between academics and staff, students, the institution of research and education or third parties, the intellectual property officer is to be notified in writing, detailing the dispute and its background.
Mediator appointment edit If a dispute arises as to the operation of this policy, or as to any matter on which the operation of this policy hinges, the intellectual property officer must appoint a mediator with professional expertise in intellectual property and sound awareness of this policy, within two weeks of receiving written notification.
The mediator will assist the parties in resolving their dispute, within three consultation meetings. If a resolution cannot be found within three consultations, the intellectual property officer must appoint an Arbitrator within four weeks of the final mediated consultation.
If a dispute cannot be resolved through the assistance of a mediator, the intellectual property officer must appoint an arbitrator to investigate and decide the matters in dispute. This appointment must be within four weeks of the third and final mediated consultation.
The Arbitrator must have professional expertise in intellectual property law, the Copyright Act , sound understanding of this Policy, and experience in arbitration. Arbitration procedure edit The arbitrator must adopt procedures that ensure that each party is given a fair hearing. Should a student or academics and staff member consider that just and fair procedures have not been followed they may seek redress through the academics and staff grievance procedures or through the institution of research and education moderator, as appropriate.
These weapons are nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons cost the citizens of the United States billions of dollars in taxes each year, the testing and maintenance of these weapons pose serious health risks, and the actual need for these weapons is not and has not been around for years.
Free nuclear weapons papers, essays, and research papers.
Sample Essay on Nuclear Weapons. Introduction. The invention and introduction of nuclear weapons into our society was an astronomical find that shaped the way nation states around the world perceived war. Nuclear weapons use the power of the atom to create tremendous explosive force. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons Essay - The Effects of Nuclear Weapons The United States is the most powerful country in the World. They have the biggest army, navy, and airforce, but that is not why other countries fear them.
Free Essays from Bartleby | Nuclear weapons are the most powerful and destructive technology ever created. From the first notion that nuclear technology. Should every country have the right to possess nuclear weapons? On the 6th November , a United States bomber flew towards the Japanese city of Hiroshima.