This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field. When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements.
In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.
Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located.
For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.
Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.
If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Problems of the Digestive System.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date.
When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode. However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. The location of an online work should include a URL.
The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.
The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.
Accessed 4 May In an MLA style heading, you need to add the following elements: Section Headers To enhance the legibility of the paper, include headers in the following way: Nevertheless, unless you are given any particular requirements for including an MLA style cover page, you should write it as follows: Use double spacing Jump 2 rows and add the designation of your college Skip one-third of the page and write the title and the subtitle, if any.
All data you introduce as in-text references must be included in the bibliography section. Add the reference in brackets, right after the quoted passage. Parenthetical references must include 2 elements: Take a look at the following examples for every variety of in-text reference: Internet is regarded as the greatest inventions ever Andrews, Andrews claims that the Internet is the greatest invention ever When there is more than one writer: The Internet is regarded as the greatest invention ever Andrews, Stevens, and Williams, When there are more than 3 writers: The Internet is regarded as the greatest invention ever Andrews et al.
Article headline and page number: Works that have no known writers or collaborators are referenced by mentioning their titles. For novels and lengthier materials, use italics. Use quotation marks on article titles.
In case the title is too big, shorten it using the same letter. Internet is regarded as the greatest invention ever Andrews. Section of a publication or subtitle of an article: Take a look at the following examples of popular MLA-style works cited listings: Internet Article known writer: Last, First Middle Initial.
Date Month Year Accessed.
MLA is a style of documentation based on a general methodology that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.
If you study liberal arts and humanities, your school will normally use the MLA (Modern Language Association) style. It suggests a title page, in-text citations, as well as footnotes and endnotes, and the bibliography at the end of your paper.
A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay. If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format it . Modern Language Association of America published the MLA guide. It is an academic style guide extensively used in the United States, Canada. The style offered by the Modern Language Association is the most popular format of essays - learn it now!
How to Format Essay Using MLA Style MLA Formatting Style Definition. MLA is an acronym for the Modern Language Association. It is most regularly used for citing liberal arts and humanities works. MLA Essay. The predominant writing and documentation style for the humanities is that of the Modern Language Association of America (MLA). If you are assigned to write an essay in English, comparative literature or other humanities courses, actually you are asked to write an MLA essay.