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Fama–French three-factor model

ADDIE Model Research Paper

❶Retrieved from " https: The task of identifying future leaders is done through a process called People Strategy Segment in which the board members and the HR head discuss and review the performances of the employees and their capability of satisfying the major needs of the company in long term.

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The task of identifying future leaders is done through a process called People Strategy Segment in which the board members and the HR head discuss and review the performances of the employees and their capability of satisfying the major needs of the company in long term. The process involves identifying the individuals who are high performers, successful and less successful. This process has the ability to ignore the capabilities that a leader requires, and a high performer is not always the best leader of the firm.

The selection criteria for selecting leaders are to identify and evaluate if the best people are working on the most important positions. If any internal employee is not capable to lead the firm, the outsiders are considered.

The PSS is also integrated in the compensation systems for the senior leaders, and ratings given in the PSS allow the firm to give bonus. The bonus is based on the business unit and personal performance of the leader. The training process is also based on separate individuals and the needs of the company. Also,training and development also considers the experienced employees rather than just focusing on the trainees.

The new strategy to deploy the leaders included the consideration of both the internal best performing employees and any external individual who is better than the working individuals in the company.

However, hiring an experienced individual from outside the company means more training for the individual because of low knowledge of the culture and the operations of the company. SMB stands for " S mall [market capitalization] M inus B ig" and HML for " H igh [book-to-market ratio] M inus L ow"; they measure the historic excess returns of small caps over big caps and of value stocks over growth stocks.

These factors are calculated with combinations of portfolios composed by ranked stocks BtM ranking, Cap ranking and available historical market data. Historical values may be accessed on Kenneth French's web page. Moreover, once SMB and HML are defined, the corresponding coefficients b s and b v are determined by linear regressions and can take negative values as well as positive values.

They find positive returns from small size as well as value factors, high book-to-market ratio and related ratios. Eugene Fama and Kenneth French also analysed models with local and global risk factors for four developed market regions North America, Europe, Japan and Asia Pacific and conclude that local factors work better than global developed factors for regional portfolios.

Finally, recent studies confirm the developed market results also for emerging markets. A number of studies have reported that when the Fama—French model is applied to emerging markets the book-to-market factor retains its explanatory ability but the market value of equity factor performs poorly. In a recent paper, Foye, Mramor and Pahor propose an alternative three factor model that replaces the market value of equity component with a term that acts as a proxy for accounting manipulation.

In , Fama and French extended the model, adding a further two factors -- profitability and investment. Defined analogously to the HML factor, the profitability factor RMW is the difference between the returns of firms with robust high and weak low operating profitability; and the investment factor CMA is the difference between the returns of firms that invest conservatively and firms that invest aggressively.

The failure to fully explain all portfolios tested is driven by the particularly poor performance i. We may also use web beacons small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails.

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Model Research Papers ; Link Library ; RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION MODEL RESEARCH PAPERS. Research Papers. MLA-style documentation. Dylan Borchers, "Against the Odds" APA-style documentation. Carolyn Stonehill, "It's in Our Genes" Chicago-style documentation. Erika Graham, "History at Home".

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Type of Research The type of research that will be used in this study is qualitative research and quantitative research. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The discipline investigates the “why” and “how” of .

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