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❶Historians, literary critics, and the general public have over the past fifty years increasingly recognized the author of The Interesting Narrative as one of the most accomplished writers of his time, and unquestionably the most accomplished author of African descent.


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What is Stephenie Meyer's writing style? She would be unable to tell you what it is, but it combines the use of common phrases and words, with few details, allowing the reader to breeze through considerable amounts of text without much thought. She punctuates by ear, rather than rule, which lets the least experienced reader feel his way through the story.

Gary Paulsen's style in writing? Gary Paulsen writing evokes powerful imagery and visualizes life in both its comic and tragic forms. What is the style of Charles Dickens writing? Dickens uses an appearance descripton to insinuate what the characters personality. He also describes people by the house they live in.

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However, his word choice seems always to be as simple as he can make it. Steinbeck writes of real life and real people. He uses a lot of dialogue, and his characters often speak in non-standard dialects.

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There tends to be a lack of character confrontations and prolonged descriptions of characters, settings, and such. What was Olaudah Equiano's opinion on the slave trade? He thought it should be abolished. He is well-known around America now. Many adaptations of his memoirhave been done including a version created by the BBC.

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What is Homer's style of writing? In the Homeric epics we have a text created within a highly traditional diction, a special poetic language, for performance before a large public situated entirely within that tradition. We do not have poetic language in our modern sense, that carefully honed personal and private idiom meant for the eye and to a lesser extent the ear of a small number of connoisseurs.

Therefore those who make up Homer's modern audience need to know if there is a certain ideal way to hear, or read, and respond to certain stylistic habits of his that our experience of modern literature has not prepared us to understand very well. That is Question One, and the important one to answer if we are interested in experiencing Homeric poetry in its full complexity and idiomatic richness. Are the Iliad and Odyssey genuine oral compositions? That is Question Two, which I believe it is not, and may never be, possible to answer with absolute certainty.

For all the disagreement and verbal combat over this issue-from Parry's earliest critics in the's to the pages of the New York Review of Books from March 5 to June 25, the fact is that recovering the exact genesis or technique of Homer's composition will always be beyond us.

Therefore knowing exactly how he composed, just how much of his verse came from improvisation while performing and how much from prior memorization, and whether the newly available skill of writing was used to any degree, should be less important to us than appreciation of the distinctive and sometimes almost odd rhetoric found throughout his poetry, and of an underlying aesthetic that can make sense of both the distinctiveness and the oddness.

While it is still theoretically possible to doubt that Homer is an oral poet, 1 it remains beyond doubt that he is "aural" in that he composes in a style guided by the ear and meant to be heard, a style that pleases through verbal play based on an aesthetic of repetition and variation, and of relaxed fullness of expression wherever the context allows it. And yet while not discarding that emphasis on the style itself, I now believe it is fruitful to return to the issue of orality in connection with some salient but non-formulaic features of this style, seeking to understand all of them as counterpart phenomena to formulas per se, and some of them as most likely generated by composition in the act of performance as described by Albert Lord in The Singer of Tales It is significant and perhaps surprising that none of these features of an oral-derived style has to do with the employment of formulas as such.

For decades the definition and analysis of the formula dominated the argument over Homer's orality, but the presence or density of formulas in a text has proved ultimately to be an insufficient basis for arguments in favor of an oral Homer. For the difficulties in using formula density to prove orality, see Hainsworth , Russo For the balance between formulaic and nonformulaic language and Homer's freedom to use both, see the important study of Finkelberg Edwards sharpens our awareness of Homer's style by presenting a survey of characteristic devices of word primarily adjective position, enjambement, and sentence structure as these are related to colon structure.

His overall emphasis is on the many devices of linkage, and to the limited extent that his study is aesthetic as well as descriptive, he does well to emphasize "the peculiar smoothness in the progression of thought in Homeric verse" , which is also my concern.

Occasionally his aesthetic judgement lapses into apology for a mere "filler" that "pads out the verse," a "meaningless grammatical link," and the like see, e.

Yet these stylistic features embody perfectly the principle of "epic fullness," a term coined by Bassett In an earlier study of devices of linkage between successive speeches, Bassett illuminated a related aspect of the Homeric aesthetic, HOMER'S STYLE Common Tropes of Extension The bulk of my paper will be devoted to the description and explication of certain rhetorical tropes that give Homeric style its peculiar flavor, an archaic taste for redundancy and familiarity discreetly seasoned with variation and ornamentation.

When, following Parry's epoch-making insight, we sought the key to Homeric oral style in the use of formulas, our concern was to examine style in order to demonstrate the poet's technique for producing verses rapidly in the act of performance. In moving from an emphasis on the generation of language to an emphasis on the aesthetic presentation of language, I am not abandoning my belief that Homer's style is either oral or orally derived, but moving the focus of investigation to a related question.

Why is Homer's style is so uniquely pleasing, and how may the sources of its charm reside in a variety of rhetorical features distinct from formularity but related to it through a shared aesthetic?

It is interesting to note that scholarship on Homeric language and compositional technique has often called attention to features that are the opposite of charming and pleasing. Homer's awkward moments and inconsistencies have more recently been regarded benignly as natural products of oral genesis Janko ; Willcock ; Gunn , based on Lord's prior demonstrations of composition by theme. I refer to such small-scale features as redundancy, confused syntax and bad grammar, anacoluthon, traditional phraseology awkwardly transferred to new contexts, verses out of place because of the performer's memory lapse or the copyist's oversight?

It is indeed a curious truth that the strongest evidence for Homer as an orally composing poet comes from the existence of these stylistic and narrative infelicities, which seem to suggest not that our text is inartistically composed or the product of layers of authorship, but rather that it is the transcription of a live performance Janko We shall return to a detailed consideration of some of these "negative" features.

We shall begin, however, with those more "positive" qualities named above, features of style that are both orally or aurally inspired and aesthetically pleasing and successful as narrative devices.

Consider three phenomena actively used in the construction of phrases and sentences, which I shall call appositional, explanatory, and metonymic extension.

I suggest that the basic epic trope, what we might call the master trope of traditional epic phrase-making, can be conceived in its simplest essence as Item Plus.

I am referring to the wide-ranging impulse toward repetition and expansion that earlier scholarship has identified under a variety of names referring to different but often related phenomena: My own terminology attempts to identify a single aesthetic impulse that issues forth in three varieties of rhetorical expansion.

It is my contention that underlying the various stylistic tropes and the principles named variously by past scholarship as "affinity," "continuity," and "progression," there is one major unifying impulse that shows itself in variety of ways. This is the fundamental impulse toward repetition and fullness. What are styles in writing a technical writing? This kind of writing could range from describing a complex procedure to maintaining a specific type of military apparatus, to explaining how to assemble a baby's playpen to a consumer.

In all cases, the style of technical writing must be succinct; accurate, comprehensive and easy to understand and follow. Personalization such as humor should not be included in technical writing.

What writing style was used to write the Bible? The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole a scene of horror almost inconceivable. Some of the sensory details in this passage include that relate to the sense of smell include the stench of the hold , the air became unfit for respiration, and a variety of loathsome smells.

Details relating to feeling include galling of the chains, almost suffocated, heat of the climate, and so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself. The last sentence of the passage offers two hearing details. The bold statement offers the visual sense.

All these descriptors fall under the literary device imagery. The diction Equiano chooses to use further specifies the pain these people endured. Words like horror, skrieks, pestilential, and loathsome paint the dire scene that they lived through.

He further develops this scene by blaming these indecent acts on the improvident avarice of the slave traders. But Equiano's experience in slavery was quite different from that of most slaves; he did not participate in field work, he served his owners personally and went to sea, was taught to read and write, and worked in trading.

Equiano's personal account of slavery, his journey of advancement, and his experiences as a black immigrant caused a sensation on publication. Some readers felt shame at learning of the suffering he had endured. In his account, Equiano gives details about his hometown Essaka and the laws and customs of the Eboe people. After being captured as a boy, he described communities he passed through as a captive on his way to the coast. His biography details his voyage on a slave ship, and the brutality of slavery in the colonies of West Indies , Virginia, and Georgia.

Equiano commented on the reduced rights that freed people of colour had in these same places, and they also faced risks of kidnapping and enslavement. Equiano had embraced Christianity at the age of 14 and its importance to him is a recurring theme in his autobiography; he identified as a Protestant of the Church of England. He was baptized while in London. Several events in Equiano's life led him to question his faith.

He was severely distressed in by the kidnapping of his friend, a black cook named John Annis, who was taken forcibly off the English ship Anglicania on which they were both serving. His friend's kidnapper, a Mr. Kirkpatrick, did not abide by the decision in the Somersett Case , that slaves could not be taken from England without their permission, as common law did not support the institution. Kirkpatrick had Annis transported to Saint Kitts , where he was punished severely and worked as a plantation labourer until he died.

With the aid of Granville Sharp , Equiano tried to get Annis released before he was shipped from England, but was unsuccessful. He heard that Annis was not free from suffering until he died in slavery. In his account, Equiano also told of his settling in London. He married an English woman and lived with her in Soham , Cambridgeshire , where they had two daughters. He became a leading abolitionist in the s, lecturing in numerous cities against the slave trade.

Equiano records his and Granville Sharp 's central roles in the anti-slave trade movement, and their effort to publicize the Zong massacre , which became known in Reviewers have found that his book vividly demonstrated the full and complex humanity of Africans as much as the inhumanity of slavery. The book was considered an exemplary work of English literature by a new African author.

Equiano did so well in sales that he achieved independence from his benefactors. He travelled extensively throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland promoting the book. He worked to improve economic, social and educational conditions in Africa. Specifically, he became involved in working in Sierra Leone , a colony founded in for freed slaves by Britain in West Africa.

During the American Revolutionary War , Britain had recruited blacks to fight with it by offering freedom to those who left rebel masters. In practice, it also freed women and children, and attracted thousands of slaves to its lines in New York City, which it occupied, and in the South, where its troops occupied Charleston. When British troops were evacuated at the end of the war, its officers also evacuated these American slaves. Britain refused to return the slaves, which the United States sought in peace negotiations.

In the years following United States' gaining independence, in Equiano became involved in helping the Black Poor of London, who were mostly those African-American slaves freed during and after the American Revolution by the British. There were also some freed slaves from the Caribbean, and some who had been brought by their owners to England, and freed later after the decision that Britain had no basis in common law for slavery.

The black community numbered about 20, Many of the freedmen found it difficult to make new lives in London and Canada. Equiano was appointed to an expedition to resettle London's Black Poor in Freetown , a new British colony founded on the west coast of Africa, at present-day Sierra Leone. The blacks from London were joined by more than 1, Black Loyalists who chose to leave Nova Scotia.

They were aided by John Clarkson , younger brother of abolitionist Thomas Clarkson. Jamaican maroons , as well as slaves liberated from illegal ships after Britain abolished the slave trade, also settled at Freetown in the early decades. Equiano was dismissed from the new settlement after protesting against financial mismanagement and he returned to London. Equiano was a prominent figure in London and often served as a spokesman for the black community.

He was one of the leading members of the Sons of Africa , a small abolitionist group composed of free Africans in London. They were closely allied with the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Equiano's comments on issues were frequently published in newspapers such as the Public Advertiser and the Morning Chronicle. He had much more of a public voice than most Africans or Black Loyalists , and he seized various opportunities to use it. After settling in England, Equiano decided to marry and have a family.

He included his marriage in every edition of his autobiography from onwards. Critics have suggested he believed that his marriage symbolised an expected commercial union between Africa and Great Britain. The couple settled in the area and had two daughters, Anna Maria — and Joanna — Susannah died in February , aged 34, and Equiano died a year after that on 31 March , [5] aged 52 sources differ on his age.

A guardianship would have been established for her. Joanna Vassa married the Rev. They moved to London in the middle of the 19th century. Equiano died on 31 March and was buried at Whitefield's Methodist chapel on 6 April. It was renovated in the s for use by Congregationalists , now the site of the American International Church.

Lastly, he lived in Paddington Street, Middlesex , where he died. At this time, due to having lost the British colonies after long warfare and especially the violent excesses of the French Revolution , British society was tense because of fears of open revolution.

Reformers were considered more suspect than in other periods. Equiano aged 51 had been an active member of the London Corresponding Society , which campaigned to extend the vote to working men. Equiano's will provided for projects he considered important.

Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)

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Equiano is clearly in a position to accurately relay the various horrors of the slave trade, as he has many years of both first-hand and second-hand experience.

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Equiano's writing style is sort of a bewildering style like he didn't know what was really happening. Being so caught up in the act of being taken from his family and a new environment is just.

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Olaudah Equiano writing style? - What is this public service announcement trying to persuade people to believe? Entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (), the book rapidly went through nine editions in his lifetime. It is one of the earliest-known examples of published writing by an African writer to be widely read in England.

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The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano study guide contains a biography of Olaudah Equiano, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Olaudah Equiano () Contributing Editor: Angelo Costanzo Classroom Issues and Strategies. I use Equiano as an introduction to American slave narrative literature and demonstrate the important influence of autobiographical form and style on the whole range of African-American literature up to the present day, including its impact on such writers as Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Alice.