The total design method. Experiments in telephone introductions". Kwantitatieve Methoden , 22, 41— Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods.
Evidence from the multi-city study of urban inequality". Findings from a household survey in Mexico". International Journal of Public Opinion Research. Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up". International Journal of Public Health. Categorical data Contingency table Level of measurement Descriptive statistics Exploratory data analysis Multivariate statistics Psychometrics Statistical inference Statistical models Graphical Log-linear Structural.
Audience measurement Demography Market research Opinion poll Public opinion. Mean arithmetic geometric harmonic Median Mode. Central limit theorem Moments Skewness Kurtosis L-moments. Grouped data Frequency distribution Contingency table. Pearson product-moment correlation Rank correlation Spearman's rho Kendall's tau Partial correlation Scatter plot.
Sampling stratified cluster Standard error Opinion poll Questionnaire. Observational study Natural experiment Quasi-experiment. Z -test normal Student's t -test F -test. Bayesian probability prior posterior Credible interval Bayes factor Bayesian estimator Maximum posterior estimator.
Pearson product-moment Partial correlation Confounding variable Coefficient of determination. Simple linear regression Ordinary least squares General linear model Bayesian regression. Regression Manova Principal components Canonical correlation Discriminant analysis Cluster analysis Classification Structural equation model Factor analysis Multivariate distributions Elliptical distributions Normal.
Spectral density estimation Fourier analysis Wavelet Whittle likelihood. Cartography Environmental statistics Geographic information system Geostatistics Kriging. Category Portal Commons WikiProject. Executive opinions Delphi method Sales force polling Consumer surveys.
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Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Survey Guide". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. For instance, you wouldn't want to ask someone their opinions about a specific computer program without first "screening" them to find out whether they have any experience using the program. Sometimes you have to screen on several variables e.
The more complicated the screening, the less likely it is that you can rely on paper-and-pencil instruments without confusing the respondent. Is your survey one where you can construct in advance a reasonable sequence of questions? Or, are you doing an initial exploratory study where you may need to ask lots of follow-up questions that you can't easily anticipate? If your subject matter is complicated, you may need to give the respondent some detailed background for a question.
Can you reasonably expect your respondent to sit still long enough in a phone interview to ask your question? If you are asking people about the different computer equipment they use, you may have to have a lengthy response list CD-ROM drive, floppy drive, mouse, touch pad, modem, network connection, external speakers, etc.
Clearly, it may be difficult to ask about each of these in a short phone interview. The content of your study can also pose challenges for the different survey types you might utilize.
If the respondent does not keep up with the news e. Or, if you want to do a study of family finances and you are talking to the spouse who doesn't pay the bills on a regular basis, they may not have the information to answer your questions.
Even if the respondent understands what you're asking about, you may need to allow them to consult their records in order to get an accurate answer. For instance, if you ask them how much money they spent on food in the past month, they may need to look up their personal check and credit card records.
In this case, you don't want to be involved in an interview where they would have to go look things up while they keep you waiting they wouldn't be comfortable with that. People come to the research endeavor with their own sets of biases and prejudices. Sometimes, these biases will be less of a problem with certain types of survey approaches.
Respondents generally want to "look good" in the eyes of others. None of us likes to look like we don't know an answer. We don't want to say anything that would be embarrassing. If you ask people about information that may put them in this kind of position, they may not tell you the truth, or they may "spin" the response so that it makes them look better. This may be more of a problem in an interview situation where they are face-to face or on the phone with a live interviewer.
Interviewers may distort an interview as well. They may not ask questions that make them uncomfortable. They may not listen carefully to respondents on topics for which they have strong opinions. They may make the judgment that they already know what the respondent would say to a question based on their prior responses, even though that may not be true.
With mail surveys it may be difficult to know who actually responded. Did the head of household complete the survey or someone else? Did the CEO actually give the responses or instead pass the task off to a subordinate? Is the person you're speaking with on the phone actually who they say they are? At least with personal interviews, you have a reasonable chance of knowing who you are speaking with. In mail surveys or phone interviews, this may not be the case.
Last, but certainly not least, you have to consider the feasibility of the survey method for your study. Cost is often the major determining factor in selecting survey type. You might prefer to do personal interviews, but can't justify the high cost of training and paying for the interviewers. You may prefer to send out an extensive mailing but can't afford the postage to do so.
Do you have the facilities or access to them to process and manage your study? In phone interviews, do you have well-equipped phone surveying facilities? For focus groups, do you have a comfortable and accessible room to host the group? Do you have the equipment needed to record and transcribe responses?
Some types of surveys take longer than others. Do you need responses immediately as in an overnight public opinion poll? Have you budgeted enough time for your study to send out mail surveys and follow-up reminders, and to get the responses back by mail?
The essence of survey method can be explained as “questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses” (Jackson, , p).
This third definition of survey is a specific type of survey research. Here are the three specific techniques of survey research: Questionnaires - a series of written questions a participant answers.
Survey Research Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents. Survey research is a commonly used method of collecting information about a population of interest. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and many methods .
In survey research, independent and dependent variables are used to define the scope of study, but cannot be explicitly controlled by the researcher. Before conducting the survey, Fundamentals of Survey Research Methodology. The different types of surveys are mainly classified into the survey methods according to instrumentation and according to the span of time involved in conducting the survey, Home Research.