She advocates for rigorous pre-service development and says that "research has shown that many of these schools have improved teaching practice and student achievement, while building professional knowledge" Darling-Hammond, , p. She also recommends that U. A state-issued certificate is the basic qualifier to teach in all fifty states. In addition to an appropriate college degree, it may also "… include a requirement of good moral character … specified courses, practice teaching" Imber, , p.
All but a few states now require testing for initial certification. School districts, however, may impose additional certification requirements such as residency, passing physicals or meeting continuing education requirements p. Certification is by no means an indicator of teaching competence and certification may be revoked.
Critics say that alternative certification routes do not provide practical experience. Likewise, critics also argue that NCLB's "highly qualified" teacher requirements are not stringent enough about verifying teaching skills. What is lacking, some critics charge, is the law's emphasis on subject knowledge over classroom skills. There is continued debate about the need to balance education in teaching skills with knowledge of the core subjects that the teacher must teach.
However, state certification requirements test subject knowledge and at the same time there are encouraging innovations in teacher education that "… allow more extensive study of specific disciplines, along with more intensive clinical training in schools" Darling-Hammond, , p.
Ideally, a key benefit of a good teacher education program is that graduates have had hands-on opportunities, beyond student teaching, to hone skills. Students who know better what they are getting into have better odds when they make the leap into the job market. The key player in hiring and retaining teachers is the school principal. As the primary interface with teachers and administration, model principals are lead teachers.
According to Heller , the best principals create a family within the school and the teachers are integrated into it. Stronge lays out criteria for effective teachers.
In the earliest research conducted on effective teachers, he says, the emphasis was on studying "personality: Today, the requirements are more exacting.
The question is what is the best method to select the most effective teachers? Peterson recommends a very customized process that is laid out for a school district by a standing hiring committee. He recommends close scrutiny of all of the teachers' credentials and other requiring demonstration of ability including written essays, a portfolio, and work samples Peterson, , p. The NEXT project at Harvard University has also conducted research on teacher hiring exploring the "fit" of teachers after they have been hired.
Applications Recruitment Strategies Recruitment is the process of working to ensure a pool of quality teachers; hiring involves selecting the most suitable highly-qualified candidates from the pool. Model Education Programs Model education programs are creating schools of professional development, similar to teaching hospitals, as they work closely with school districts to create an experiential environment for their students.
Certification A state-issued certificate is the basic qualifier to teach in all fifty states. Hiring Highly Qualified Teachers The key player in hiring and retaining teachers is the school principal.
Somalia and the United States. Opponents of ratification object to giving away US sovereignty to the UN a general objection applying to most treaties , but they also claim the treaty undermines parental rights.
But those are not the only objections. The United States would be out of compliance with this protocol because our federal government currently mandates that military recruiters have full access to the nation's public high schools for purposes of aggressively recruiting youngsters. In every public high school across the country, including the one our children attend in central Seattle, recruiters from all branches of the military work to enlist children, aged 14 through 18 years, for assignments ranging from pushing paper to bombing Afghan villages.
There are public health reasons for concern regarding military recruitment in public schools. The bulk of newly enlisted military personnel are developmentally in late adolescence—a time of relatively robust physical health but not necessarily complete brain development or a wise time to introduce high levels of stress. One pediatric researcher has noted,. Joining the military service … entails absolute obedience, uniform appearance, disengagement from the family, and a potential threat for physical injury and mental stress, as well as requirement for responsibility beyond the personal needs of the individual.
Although adults in the active military service are reported to experience increased mental health risk, including stress, substance abuse, and suicide, 4 , 5 the youngest soldiers consistently show the worst health effects, suggesting military service is associated with disproportionately poor health for this population. Much has been written lately about adolescent brain development to explain why adolescents make decisions differently than do adults. One recent review in Nature explains,.
Even before you add raging hormones and peer-group-driven rebelliousness-without-a-cause to the mixture, adolescents may simply be unable consistently to make decisions the same way adults do. This could well be one of the reasons that, although most people are healthier during their adolescence than at any other time in their lives, adolescents are three or four times more likely to die than children past infancy: Auto insurance companies certainly understand this concept and age-adjust their rates accordingly.
Four years ago, the official, nationally affiliated parent organization at the Seattle, Washington, Garfield High School the Parent—Teacher Student Association, or as it is known at the state and national level, PTA took a stand opposing school-based military recruiting. The school community now boasts of its broad diversity, both racially and economically. The swimming pool is named after Medgar Evers. It's a school with a history and a lot of soul.
Garfield's PTA is a school booster organization in many traditional ways. We spend tens of thousands of dollars annually to support a reading literacy program for the many students who arrive from middle school functionally illiterate. We support a college access program employing several AmeriCorps members to help first-generation immigrant students apply to colleges.
We buy sports uniforms. We host teacher appreciation breakfasts. We are represented on the school's governing council with faculty and administration. We organize meetings with the community to discuss gang violence and student safety.
We pay for field trips, lab fees, and art supplies and give small grants to faculty to purchase projectors and books. One year, during budget cuts, we even supported an entire math faculty position. Students at Garfield High School in Seattle, WA, drop to the floor for pushups under the command of a military recruiter at the school in While engaging in these traditional parent organization activities, we do not shy away from controversy. The lives of the young people we graduate from this institution are valuable and precious to us.
The financial costs of fighting a new war will come directly from the public's resources that would be better spent improving the quality of education for our children, and advancing their opportunities for higher education.
The United States invaded Iraq in March Sustaining a war with an all-volunteer army is difficult, and military recruiters fell behind. If you're a military recruiter, where do you go to find prospects? Where do you find the most likely to enlist young people—those who may have limited incomes and are worried about affording college?
In Seattle, recruiters head to the cafeterias at the lower-income central and south-end high schools where young people on free and reduced lunch go to get a meal. We also talked about increasingly deceptive and aggressive recruiting practices and discussed an Associated Press report of hundreds of rapes of young women by their military recruiters. A reporter from the Christian Science Monitor attended our meeting on May 9 and wrote an account of the vote. From there, the story spread. The next recruitment date at Garfield was May 18, the same day as our faculty appreciation lunch.
The PTA co-chair author A. Two local television stations heard about the recruitment appearance and hurried over to set up cameras in the lunchroom.
Seattle Post-Intelligencer reporter Mary Lynn Lyke published a front-page story with a photo above the fold. Local talk radio was abuzz.
For the next several days, PTA members appeared on two dozen local, national, and international radio and television talk and news shows and were interviewed for several newspapers, including news services that were picked up by local outlets all over the country.
The press attention was overwhelming partly because the PTA is a mainstream organization whose only mission is to protect and support children; when the PTA takes a stand on an issue like this, the issue itself becomes newsworthy. Our efforts also gave a boost to antiwar groups, whose efforts to raise public opposition after the US invasion had to that date been lackluster.
Some pundits attached the lack of public opposition to the war to the absence of a military draft but noted that the aggressive military recruitment among vulnerable student populations was, in effect, a backdoor draft.
The Seattle school board took up the issue over the summer of , and members of the board worked with us and with veteran and student activist groups to revise citywide rules on recruitment.
There were two rounds of changes, during which several policies were modified. Recruiter visits were limited to one per semester, visits were to be announced in advance, and military recruiters were no longer free to roam through the school building. Counterrecruiters were to be invited when the military was on-site to provide information on the enlistment contract, the realities of military life, and alternatives to the military for funding college. Although these new policies represented some of the most restrictive recruitment policies on record in the United States, their effect was limited to the Seattle public school district.
We took the project to the state PTA, hoping to raise statewide interest. Recruitment practices are far more aggressive in rural and low-income suburban areas than they are in liberal Seattle. We had two unsuccessful attempts to persuade the state PTA to engage on this issue.
Finally, on October 6 at the Washington State PTA Legislative Assembly, the body voted to 78 to amend its platform to limit military access to high school students by encouraging the state office of superintendent of public instruction to help schools conduct better parent education on how the military may contact children.
Be so helpful and so much a part of the school scene that you are in constant demand. Attend athletic events at the HS [high school]. Deliver donuts and coffee for the faculty once a month. Offer to be a timekeeper at football games.
Wear your dress blues and participate in school events commemorating this holiday. The behaviors are remarkably similar to those psychologists characterize as predatory grooming, defined as. It is frequently a prerequisite for an abuser to gain access to a child.
In Seattle, recruiters chaperone dances, tutor kids, coach football teams, and ride buses to and from school—all in an effort to get near kids. In other parts of the state, they volunteer to teach gym classes, sponsor climbing walls, bring large armored vehicles to campuses to create a sensation, and infuse counseling offices with the ASVAB—the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery test—to assist young people in making career choices with scores forwarded to recruiters.
Nothing in the manual advises recruiters to reveal the risks their prospects face—neither the physical hazards on the battlefield nor the psychological trauma and its aftereffects. During the height of the Iraq War, recruitment goals were modestly low; even so, the goals were not met for many months. The recent collapse of the US economy, however, has been just the boon the recruiters needed. It does allow students and their families to opt out of this wholesale release of private information to the military.
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