In the absence of a clear vision, fear and turf protection become the main drivers of behavior as people worry that their skills become obsolete or will not be utilized in the new organization, thus loosing their jobs. Most cited BPR downfalls have been due to a failure of adequately addressing human resource questions and a general lack of management understanding and commitment to the reengineering effort. Such failures have been categorized into four elements: Reengineering neglects to deal adequately with the people of the organization who ultimately determine whether reengineering works or not.
The horrific effects of typical reengineering efforts on the morale and motivation of the survivors are often overlooked. Initiatives often fail because focus has been concentrated on the processes and ignored the people who make them work. Common long-term losses include moral problems. Functional Culture TQM possesses the asset of an effective culture that emphasizes the role of the customer, whether internal or external.
The culture that has resulted in an organization that has undertaken a quality campaign is greatly conducive to corporate goals and strategies. The customer, as well as process focus, the prevention versus inspection policies, fact-based decision making, the highlight on feedback, and most importantly, the care bestowed upon employees install an open responsive culture.
The weight placed on continuous improvement through continual learning is significant. Today, organizations have become information-processing networks capable of enhancing their positions only through learning. Learning is a major core value for an organization seeking excellence, as it has become synonymous with quality. A total quality management campaign entails a complete involvement of the entire organization in a management led attempt to achieve success. Employees are trained and empowered to take responsible decisions and are considered as collaborates in organizational work.
It is such a culture that distinguishes flourishing organizations and allows them to acquire the competitive advantage necessary in order to compete.
Some have argued that the element of continuous improvement mentality inhibits learning. However, the most captious criticism of TQM has been its lack of strategic impact. Reconciliation and Integration It is apparent that that there are major problems within the foundations of each individual approach. In an attempt to re-conciliate the two approaches, two theories have erupted. The second camp, on the other hand, entertains the idea of applying TQM after BPR as the latter builds the platform and prepares the stage for the former.
This follow up is incorporated in the continuous improvement offered by TQM. Practitioners can create an integrated model where both incremental and quantum improvements are possible within a continuous improvement environment. In such a model, the building blocks are an integration of the best practices of the two methods building on the strengths of both and eliminating most of their individual weaknesses. The changes commensurate with BPR usually scare employees and de-motivate them.
Both kinds of change can and should be pursued, even though their requirements are different. Nevertheless, the two approaches fail to address some common weaknesses, which, if left un-addressed, become weaknesses of the integrated model, rendering it insufficient and ineffective.
Lack of strategic impact: Not conducting strategic business planning to set the future direction of the company prior to starting the TQM initiative has caused major failures.
The inherent lack of strategic integrity embodied within TQM is considered to be one of its main flaws. Similarly, in most cases BPR is undertaken to achieve medium-term cost and time saving rather than longer term strategic benefits. A greater focus on learning at the expense of the preoccupation with cost and time could increase the strategic impact of many BPR applications. However, the impact of change on people, and the way organizations are dealing with their people, is still considered a problem within both.
The failure of many recent large-scale efforts at corporate change can be traced directly to employee resistance, lack of support, lack of enthusiasm and generally lack of the right culture to support the framework. Managing business productivity has essentially become synonymous with managing change effectively. To this end, companies must not only determine what to do and how to do it they, but also need to be concerned with how employees will react to it. It is becoming increasingly clear that the engine for organizational development is the people who do the work.
Without altering human knowledge, skill, and behavior — changes in technology, processes, and structures is unlikely to yield long-term benefits. The new work pattern is flexible working hours, knowledge workers, working from home, etc.
So while these patterns emerge, organizations must change the way they deal with their people to yield maximum benefits. The success of an organization lies more in its intellectual capabilities than in physical assets. The capacity to manage human intellect and to convert it into useful products and services is fast becoming the executive skill of the age. Thus, the model to be developed will be people oriented where high performance can be achieved only through people.
Organizations are unique and each must find its path to success by continuously learning and customizing best practices. Thus, this model shall be set up in such a way so as to present a broad framework of generic ideas applicable to all organizations. However, it is not suggested that such a model will be a silver bullet.
Its effectiveness depends on thoroughly understanding the business and the people in it. The aim of the model is to help organizations achieve performance excellence by ensuring a healthy balance between stability and continuous change. Continuous change comes from continuous learning, and both aspects rely on fully committed and educated people. Hence, the objectives of the model will be to focus on delighting the customer, to emphasize organizational people as the main competitive advantage and to develop a commitment to continuous learning and improvement.
The model proposes turning organizational attention from cost-cutting and staff reduction to employee well-being by proposing an equal emphasis on the three main pillars of organization development, i.
According to John Jr. Competition will be relentless. The bar of excellence in everything we do will be raised everyday. This, in turn, suggests the need for human and system flexibility and continuous learning within an organization held together by consistency of purpose, through a clear shared vision and open communication. Processes and people surround, and work for, the customer, and are held together by a clear set of organizational values and goals.
As such, the main building blocks of the model are as follows: Past attempts to achieve and retain competitive advantage have largely looked internally within the organization for improvement. However, more so in the future, a major source for competitive advantage will come from more outward orientation towards customers and competition will focus on superior customer value delivery.
The customer who should enjoy all the attention is the end user, as opposed to internal customers, suggested by TQM. This includes the strategic planning and management capability, and outstanding leadership. The model proposes integrating the latest techniques of strategic management and thinking within the planning, implementation, and assessment stages.
The function of strategic planning in the new management model is to align all the efforts of the organization to customer satisfaction, quality, and operational performance goals. Companies use their strategic planning processes to drive the whole improvement process.
The major enabler for the coming century will be IT. Potentials of IT cannot be left unrealized by an organization aiming to survive in the future. However, businesses must creatively integrate IT with human expertise to meet customer needs.
Organizational people development should be the focal point as the source of future success. Workforce development is a top priority because it is the leverage of an association. The model aims to set out best practices in a culture of participative management, team structure, reward, training and development, recruitment, motivation, commitment, communication and knowledge management. TQM is based on a set of philosophies that emphasize continuous improvement in processes to increase customer satisfaction.
To accomplish this objective, TQM requires flexibility and cross-training, cross-functional team problem solving, employee empowerment and ownership of the process. These are also essential to reengineering. For managers and employees ignorant of TQM and its requirements, a jump into the reengineering bandwagon may spin out of control. Reengineering is certainly risky, but it should be a calculated risk. Professionals experienced with TQM possess the skills necessary to organize and plan the changes designed to increase customer satisfaction, and are, thus, better prepared to utilize those skills on a large scale.
In the external environment, for any company, change has become the only constant. Technology changes, information change, competition changes; everything changes and the organization itself need to change. In the midst of this flux rises the need for another constant to counter the effect of change, and that would be a culture of change: The company is an example of an organization that believed reengineering in a crisis situation is inappropriate as crisis in itself promotes fear, confusion, and panic, none of which is conducive to focused BPR.
Senior management views incremental change brought about by TQM as greatly valuable, but on its own is not enough. They note that TQM has introduced some surface changes to behavior, while underlying processes, which maintain sub-optimal performance, remained untouched.
Sometimes shots of radical change that can only be brought by BPR are also necessary. The reengineering implementation teams had to take risks in pursuit of excellence, relying on change management skills and techniques acquired from the TQM experience.
TQM and BPR have arguably been so influential due to the amorphous and comprehensive nature of their philosophies. All things considered, TQM, as well as BPR, are applicable to all business sectors, encompassing all aspects of the business and touching upon all corners of an organization without any constrictions.
Neither approach guarantees success. The individual strengths and weaknesses of each have been shown to complement one another. From the evidence presented, it can be concluded that the way forward for organizational development is an integrated model, one that builds on the best practices of BPR and TQM and adds strategic planning and a stronger focus on people.
There may be some foreseeable problems, such as a reorganization, change in senior management personnel, interpersonal conflicts, a current crisis, or a time consuming activity. These problems may postpone implementation to a more favorable time.
The next step is the formation of the quality council initiation of these duties is a substantial part of the implementation of TOM. The development of core values, a vision statement, a mission statement, and a quality policy statement, with input from all personnel, should be completed first. The active involvement of middle managers and first line supervisors is essential to the success of the TQM effort.
Senior management needs to ensure that managers at all levels have an opportunity, as soon as possible, to develop ownership in the TQM effort and a chance to acquire the insight and skills necessary to become leaders.
One way to accomplish this concept is to have a retreat. If there is a union, there should be early discussions with the representatives on TQM. Managers should involve union leaders by sheling with them implementation plans for TQM. As the quality effort progresses, managers and union leaders should work together on quality improvement activities.
At this stage of the implementation process, it is important to communicate TQM to the entire organization. Communication is important throughout the implementation stage.
Communication is necessary to create TQM awareness interest, desire, and action. Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving. This training is conducted when the employee is placed on a project team or the work group is ready for the training. Customer, employee, and supplier surveys must be conducted to benchmark the attitudes of these three stakeholders.
Information from these surveys provides ideas for quality improvement projects. The quality council determines the quality improvement projects. In addition the council establishes the project teams and work groups and monitors their progress.
There is often a tendency to rush the implementation process. On the other hand, Karlee, a Malcolm Baldrige. Implementation of TQM is described in the next chapter, on leadership. This section gives information concerning the obstacles associated with implementation. Many organizations, especially small ones with a niche, are comfortable with their current state. The first eight most common were determined by Robert J.
Masters after an extensive literature search and the last obstacle added by the authors They are given below. According to a survey of manufacturing firms in Georgia, the benefits of TQM are improved quality, employee participation, teamwork, working relationships, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, profitability, and market share.
They showed that there is a strong link between TQM and financial performance. They then selected a control group similar in size and industry to the award winners. Performance of both groups was compared during the five years prior to the award and five years after winning the award. No difference was shown between the two groups prior to the award. In addition, the study showed that small organizations out performed larger organizations.
There is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the tonic of leadership. In his book Leadership, James MacGregor Bums describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals. As stated in its core values and concepts, visionary leadership is-. The directions, values, and expectations should balance the needs of all your stakeholders.
The values and strategies should help guide all activities and decisions of your organization. Senior leaders should serve as role models through their ethical behavior and their personal involvement in planning, communications, coaching, development of future leaders, review of organizational performance, and employee recognition.
As role models, they can reinforce values and expectations while building leadership, commitment, and initiative throughout your organization. Leadership can be difficult to define. However, successful quality leaders tend to have certain characteristics.
In order to become successful, leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. Everyone is responsible for quality, especially senior management and the CEO; however, only the latter can provide the leadership system to achieve results. The General Electric training courses taught leadership approaches and models and provided the opportunity for teams to develop solutions to real business problems.
Many of the solutions the teams developed were implemented. Jack Welch supported the development of a leadership system whereby quality control leaders were developed at all levels in all functions of the organization, including research, marketing, manufacturing, sales, finance, and human resources. Senior managers need to be provided with the skills to implement quality control techniques and actively participate in the quality council.
Senior management has numerous responsibilities. Management should get out of the office and visit customers, suppliers, departments within the organization, and plants within the organization.
That way, managers learn what is happening with a particular customer, supplier, or project. MBWA can substantially reduce paperwork. Encourage subordinates to write only important messages that need to be part of the permanent record.
This approach is an excellent technique for gaining firsthand information. The idea is to let employees think for themselves. Push problem solving and decision making to the lowest appropriate level by delegating authority and responsibility. Senior managers must stay informed on the topic of quality improvement by reading books and articles, attending seminars, and talking to other TQM leaders.
The leader sends a strong message to subordinates when that leader asks if they have read a part ocular book or article.
This activity is an excellent opportunity to reinforce the importance of the effort and to promote TQM. One of the duties of the quality council is to establish or revise the recognition and reward system.
Also, provisions must be made to reward teams as well as creative individuals. Senior managers must be visibly and actively engaged in the quality effort by sending on teams, coaching teams, and teaching seminars.
They should lead by demonstrating, communicating, and reinforcing the quality statements. As a rule of thumb, they should spend about one third of their time on quality. A very important role of senior managers is listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups, and surveys.
This information is translated into core values and process improvement projects. Another very important role is communication. In addition to internal efforts, there must be external activities with customers and suppliers, the media, advertising in trade magazines, and interaction with the quality community. By following the preceding suggestions, senior managers should be able to drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change, and, in general, change the culture.
Only with the involvement of senior management can TQM be a success. The most important asset of any organization is its customers. Customers that are satisfied will increase in number, buy more, and buy more frequently. Satisfied customers also pay their bills promptly, which greatly improves cash flow the lifeblood of any organization. Increasingly, manufacturing and service organizations are using customer satisfaction as the measure of quality.
The importance of customer satisfaction is not only due to national competition but also due to worldwide competition. Since customer satisfaction is hard to measure, the measurement often is not precise. As with most attitudes, there is variability among people, and often within the same person at different times.
Often, due to the difficulty of measuring feelings, customer satisfaction strategies are developed around clearly stated, logical customer opinions, and the emotional issues of a purchase are disregarded. This can be a costly mistake. Customer satisfaction should not be viewed in a vacuum. For example, a customer may be satisfied with a product or service and therefore rate the product or service highly in a survey, and yet that same customer may buy another product or service.
The value customers place on one product compared to another may be a better indicator of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty can be sustained only by maintaining a favorable comparison when compared with competitors. As mentioned before customer satisfaction is not a simple concept to understand or to measure.
Involving employees, empowering them and bringing them into the decision making process provides the opportunity for continuous process improvement. The untapped ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Competition is so fierce that it would be unwise not to use every available tool. Employee involvement improves quality and increases productivity, because. Quality based organizations should strive to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes.
Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, we must continually strive for its attainment. It is an effective improvement technique. The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated. First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan does it. Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different? Quality control should be implemented. Simplification of processes can make them run more smoothly.
The following example illustrates how check-in function one of the key responsibilities of reception staff can be simplified: Hilton International implemented an express check-in service system: Human resource excellence should be achieved through training reception employees in both technical and interpersonal skills. It is of vital importance that reception staff speaks perfect English, other global languages are preferred. An effective measure for reception staff can be self-assessment and assessment by colleagues.
Together with customer feedback, it can be a way to ensure accountability. Customer orientation response can be achieved through motivating staff to provide exceptional customer services. A sense of strategic direction, organizational alignment, and focus on effectiveness should be developed in all reception workers. Motivated and committed workforce is likely to translate into customer service excellence. Ritz-Carlton hotels ensure human resource excellence by hiring the right people, orientation, teaching necessary skills and inculcating appropriate behavior.
Following the aforementioned four steps, an assessment of the effectiveness of TQM implementation should be conducted by measuring the economic advantage. The advantages and disadvantages of TQM in the hotel industry in Kuwait Specifically for Kuwait, the productive factors of employees, equipment, and facilities, allocated over a period of time, determine the capacity of a firm. The amount of time that the productive factors are available divided by the average time it takes to serve a customer gives the number of customers that could be served.
Essentially, this figure dictates the number of servable customers that any specific configuration of the people, facilities, and equipment in operation can serve Gee, Since the capacity for a service depends on the various steps in the process, the weakest link in the process, or the bottleneck, determines the capacity of the whole process.
Capacity for a multistep process is said to be balanced if all the steps in the process are about equal in the number of customers they can serve in the same amount of time Gee, In Kuwait, not all customer interactions with the firm are likely to be of critical importance in the customer experience.
In order to prioritize the attention of capacity management practices, it is important to focus on those customer interactions that are likely to be critical incidents—the fail-points. Next, the cost of the productive factors for the value-creating processes for those critical incidents needs to be ascertained. The key question is: What is the feasibility of stretching or shrinking the productive factors? For each capacity-determining productive factor, an important input into capacity management decisions is how costs and customer value are affected by its shrinking or stretching Mwaura, Sutton, and Davis, There are several implementation considerations in determining which capacity management practice is appropriate in Kuwait.
For example, what is the minimum capacity at which the firm must operate? The minimum capacity at which a firm must operate takes into account the volume of customers required to cover fixed costs assuming variable costs are already covered in the pricing. The maximum capacity is, of course, the maximum number of customers that can be served. The optimum level of operation is not at the maximum capacity.
Within this minimum-to-maximum range of capacity, there is an optimum capacity level at which both profits and customer satisfaction are maximized. Handling more customers than that could result in deteriorating quality. For example, there is a maximum tolerable waiting time at each interaction for most customers. The main consideration is how these waits affect customer value.
For example, in-process waiting is a less significant contributor to customer dissatisfaction than preprocess waiting. Adjusting capacity requires an analysis of wait time and its effect on customer experience. Many operations optimization techniques seeking to minimize costs allow firms to ignore customer satisfaction unless specifically built into the algorithm.
These TQM techniques ought to be designed and implemented with the primary consideration being their effect on customer value and customer relationships. Culture change is a challenging task for management.
Effective communication is essential at times of change. It is important that employee perceive culture of TQM as a necessary and beneficial element of providing customer service. Furthermore, culture change should not be presented as a top-down initiative: TQM should not be regarded as a goal in itself but as a means to enhance economic advantage.
Weaknesses Since TQM requires employee empowerment, management might be reluctant to give up a part of its power, especially in the country with hierarchical power structures.
RESEARCH PAPER Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member Dinh Thai Hoanga, Barbara Igelb∗ and Tritos Laosirihongthongc aUniversity of Economics, Hochiminh City, Vietnam; bSchool of Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani , Thailand; cIndustrial Engineering Department, Faculty of.
It is known by names other than Total Quality Management, including: the Deming Management Method; in the United States Total Quality Improvement and Total Quality Commitment; in Japan- Total Quality Control, Company- Wide Quality Control, and kaizen, which in Japanese means gradual, unending improvement, doing little things better, setting and achieving ever higher standards.
TQM research paper topics: good collection of academic writing tips and free essay samples. You can read it online here! International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 10, October 1 filefreevd.tk Total Quality management (TQM) and Continuous Improvement as Addressed by Researchers Ola Ibrahim Leadership and Management Department, School of Business University of Huddersfield paper “Introduction and Implementation of.
TQM Research Papers TQM research papers overview total quality management concepts. Total Quality Management research papers are written by the business and management writers at Paper Masters. In the last two decades two organizational development models have dominated the business world for a considerable period of time namely Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Statement of Objective This paper aims to shed a novel light on the two most recent and prominent management approaches, namely TQM and BPR.