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The 3 Basic Types of Descriptive Research Methods

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❶Allows drawing of conclusions about the causal relationships among variables.. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A?

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What Is the Meaning of the Descriptive Method in Research?
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In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies , averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are.

In addition, the conceptualizing of descriptive research categorization or taxonomy precedes the hypotheses of explanatory research. Descriptive research is also known as Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied.

The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a situation. Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a topic. That is, analysis of the past as opposed to the future. Descriptive research is the exploration of the existing certain phenomena. The details of the facts won't be known. Descriptive science is a category of science that involves descriptive research; that is, observing, recording, describing, and classifying phenomena.

Descriptive research is sometimes contrasted with hypothesis-driven research , which is focused on testing a particular hypothesis by means of experimentation. Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel suggest that descriptive science in biology is currently undervalued and misunderstood:.

A negative attitude by scientists toward descriptive science is not limited to biological disciplines: Lord Rutherford's notorious quote , "All science is either physics or stamp collecting," displays a clear negative attitude about descriptive science, and it is known that he was dismissive of astronomy , which at the beginning of the 20th century was still gathering largely descriptive data about stars, nebulae, and galaxies, and was only beginning to develop a satisfactory integration of these observations within the framework of physical law , a cornerstone of the philosophy of physics.

Ilkka Niiniluoto has used the terms "descriptive sciences" and "design sciences" as an updated version of the distinction between basic and applied science. Quantitative experiments are often expensive and time-consuming so it is often good sense to get an idea of what hypotheses are worth testing.

Because there are no variables manipulated , there is no way to statistically analyze the results. In addition, the results of observational studies are not repeatable , and so there can be no replication of the experiment and reviewing of the results. Descriptive research design is a valid method for researching specific subjects and as a precursor to more quantitative studies.

Whilst there are some valid concerns about the statistical validity , as long as the limitations are understood by the researcher, this type of study is an invaluable scientific tool. Whilst the results are always open to question and to different interpretations, there is no doubt that they are preferable to performing no research at all. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Sep 26, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4.

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Descriptive research methods are pretty much as they sound -- they One of the goals of science is description (other goals include prediction and explanation). They do not make accurate predictions, and they do not determine cause and effect.

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Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. More simply put, descriptive research is all .

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Sep 08,  · Descriptive research is also called Statistical Research. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Some examples of descriptive research include case studies and preliminary observation of a group. Case studies are examples of a relevant event that can be analyzed to learn about a specific group or topic. Observation is an essential part of descriptive research, and is the main way of gathering.

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Descriptive research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher having no control over variable. Moreover, “descriptive studies may be characterised as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be” [1]. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect.